grammar

倒置構文

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Inversion 倒置構文とは

倒置構文とは、単語の順番を入れ替えている文章です。

inversion

通常の単語の順番が「S+V+O」のときは、「O+S+V」、「S+V+C」のときは「C+V+S」となります。

強調のための倒置

補語・目的語の強調

補語の場合は「C+V+S」に、目的語は「O+S+V」となります。

I spent all my spare time to build my own house.

All my spare time I spent to build my own house.

He realised the importance of event only slowly.

Only slowly did he realise the importance of event.

否定語の強調

never、hardly、rarely、scarcely、littleなどを倒置する場合、「副詞+do(did、does)+S+V」もしくは「副詞+助動詞+S+V」となります。

I rarely watch TV.

Rarely do I watch TV.

I have never seen him so sad.

Never have I seen him so sad.

副詞句の強調

否定語以外の副詞句を文の先頭に置く場合は、「副詞+V+S」もしくは「副詞+do(does+did)+S+V」となります。

A great mansion stood on a hill in front of us.

On a hill in front of us stood a great mansion.

I knew the detail of the issue only today.

Only today did I know the detail of the issue.

慣用的な倒置

慣用的に倒置で表現されるものもあります。

so、neither、norの文

肯定文では「So+(助)動詞+主語」、否定文では「Neither+(助)動詞+主語」のようにすることで、繰り返しを避けます。

-I am not fond of the writer’s books.
Neither am I.

My father plays guitar and so does my mother.

I did not study at all yesterday and neither did my brother.

I did not study at all yesterday, nor did my brother.

仮定法でifを省略する場合

ifを省略する場合、主語と動詞が入れ替わります。

If I were there, my family would have been happier.

Were I there, my family would have been happier.

asで譲歩を表す副詞節

形容詞(名詞)+as+S+Vで、譲歩を表します。

Though he was amateur, he could see something was wrong with the show.

Amateur as he was, he could see something was wrong with the show.

There+V+Sの文

文頭にthere(here)を持ってくることで、強調します。

Watch out. There goes the police.

Be careful. Here comes the army.

Okay we are ready. Here we go.

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